The basic constructive element
of the elastic machines and mechanisms is a toroidally shaped
pressurized elastic shell – collectively called elastic toroids. The
simple toroid can be created from a piece of a flexible hose by
connecting the ends of the hose inside the hose or by inverting a tore
made from a flexible, elastic material (See Picture 1).
Picture 1 Inversion: from torus/tore to toroid
A. Non-elastic torus does not create a toroid. B and C. Inverted
elastic torus create toroid.
There are single-component (single-cavity or single-chamber) or
multi-component (multi-cavity or multi-chamber) elastic toroids.
The basic attribute of an elastic toroid is its ability to translate
forward along the lengthwise direction when specific forces are
applied. The working surfaces of the elastic toroid are in a specific
way kinematically connected with central bodies and/or external and/or
internal peripheral bodies that originate the inversion of the
toroidal shell and thus make elastic toroid enveloping the space along
its path and move forward (See Picture 2)
Picture 2 Complex Toroidal Device
1 - 3 - Elastic Toroidal Shell with Working/Fluid Medium – Elastic
toroid: 1 – Central part (Pinc), 2 - Peripheral part (Brown), 3 –
Working medium (Pt).
4 - Internal peripheral body, 5 - External peripheral body, 6 -
Central body, 7 – Obstacle, 8 - Curved line (oval) of Elastic Toroid’s
Inflection, 9 - Elastic Toroid’s Master End Face with
Funnel+-Predictor (P+), 10 - Elastic Toroid’s Driven End Face with
Funnel—-Corrector (P-), 11 – Folds, 12 – “Running” Curling,
Twisting/Winding, 13 – Cylindrical/Conical “Well”
Toroids have no less than five degrees of freedom. The elastic
toroid can provide a vast controlled contact area and small specific
pressure over the bearing surface with low pressure of the fluid
medium in the shell. The elastic toroid can also move in the crosswise
direction simply by rolling. For a toroid to function as intended, the
toroid materials must be impermeable, strong and elastic and at the
same time thin and lightweight.